Anthony Durante

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Anthony Durante () est un catcheur américain plus connu sous le nom de « Pitbull #2 » ayant fait équipe sous le nom de The Pitbulls, avec « Pitbull #1 » Gary Wolfe.

Durante est plus connu sous le nom de Pitbull #2 dans l’équipe The Pitbulls à la ECW, avec Pitbull #1, Gary Wolfe. The Pitbulls remporte le ECW World Tag Team Championship le 16 septembre 1995 sur Raven et Stevie Richards après l’interférence de leur manager, Francine. Durant le match, Durante a porté un Superbomb sur Raven qui la sérieusement blessé. Un mois après Raven et Richards récupèrent le titre.

Le 11 mai 1996, à A Matter of Respect, Durante se lance dans une carrière solo et fait alors face à Raven dans un match pour le titre ECW World Championship, avec The Sandman. Le 1er juin 1996, à Fight the Power, Durante bat Shane Douglas pour remporter le titre ECW World Television Championship.

Le 13 avril 1997, au premier ECW pay-per-view, ECW Barely Legal, Durante rencontre Shane Douglas pour le titre ECW World Television Championship.

Le premier JAPW Heavyweight Champion est Joe Rules, qui le remporte le 31 octobre 1997. Il élimine Durante dans une bataille royale à 20 hommes pour devenir le champion. Mais plus tard dans la soirée Durante bat Joe Rules pour le titre. Son règne prend fin le 5 décembre 1997 quand il laisse le titre vacant après une blessure.

Durante décède le 25 septembre 2003 avec sa petite amie, Dianna Hulsey, après une overdose. Ils sont retrouvés morts dans leur maison et laissent deux enfants en bas âge, un garçon âgé de 21 mois et une petite fille de 8 mois.

Gaius Octavian (Rome character)

Gaius Octavian is a character in the HBO/BBC2 original television series Rome, played by Max Pirkis as a child in season one and the beginning of season two, and in the rest of the second season he is played by Simon Woods. He is portrayed as a shrewd, if somewhat cold, young man, with an understanding of the world, people, philosophy, and politics that go well beyond his years. Despite this he is very power hungry, unaccomplished and uses the accomplishments of his male relatives in order to further his political career. The basis for this character is the early life of Augustus, the first Roman Emperor.

Born to one of the most powerful families in Rome, the Julii, Octavian is the only son and youngest child of Atia of the Julii. His father died when he was young and was subsequently brought up by his mother and his older sister, Octavia. At the beginning of the series Rome, Octavian is mere adolescent and his mother has him travel across a barren land with only a few slaves to take a white horse (brought to Rome by Timon), as a gift, to his great-uncle. However, along the way his slaves are killed and he is kidnapped by some Gaulish brigands. He is rescued by Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus and with them, they recover the golden eagle from Pompey’s men and return it to Octavian’s great-uncle, Julius Caesar. Caesar is extremely impressed with the young boy’s strength, intelligence and common beliefs about the Plebeians.

Octavian returns to Rome, accompanied by Pullo and Vorenus under the command of Mark Antony, Atia’s lover, and is taken home to his mother. He demonstrates a large understanding about the state of Rome and its politics. As the result of the rebellion, the Julii family and their allies prepare to commit suicide. Upon being asked who he would wish to kill him, Octavian states that, „I can take care of myself.“ Caesar returns to Rome and the Julii family are spared, leaving many of the other nobility to ask them for protection. In the rebellion, and although it would seem that Octavian suspects his mother is involved, he says nothing.

His mother is ambitious for Octavian’s future, encouraging him to risk his life to impress his great-uncle, having him eat goat’s testicles to make him more of a man, and enlisting Pullo as a tutor to help Octavian in his battle, as well as copulation skills. He is partly responsible for the deaths of Pompey’s men and helping to murder Vorenus‘ brother-in-law, Evander Pulchio. Julius Caesar takes an interest in Octavian, giving him important political roles, including making him a pontiff despite his young age.

When Caesar’s will is read shortly after his assassination it is revealed that he has adopted Octavian as his son and made him his heir. Octavian uses this to his full advantage and convinces Mark Antony to stay in Rome in order to stop Brutus and the other assassins from gaining power. However, after Brutus and the others flee Rome, Mark Antony refuses to transfer control of Caesar’s money from Caesar’s name to Octavian’s. In retaliation against Antony and his mother, Octavian promises the plebeians the money that Caesar promised in the will. When Antony and Atia find out, he is attacked violently by Antony after Octavian insults his mother and refuses to apologize. Octavian is disgusted with his mother’s choice of siding with Antony against him, and he runs away from home, taking all his belongings and a few soldiers. He travels south to Campania to stay with his friend Marcus Agrippa, who „is well established there.“

It is later mentioned that he and Agrippa have organized an army ten thousand strong that includes a large number of veterans. Cicero eventually sides with them against Antony, who is then declared a traitor. Very soon afterwards, Octavian is reunited with his friend Titus Pullo, who is amazed to see that the generals the Senate sent to lead Octavian’s soldiers have defeated Mark Antony. Pullo tells Octavian that Vorenus‘ children are alive and that he wanted to tell Vorenus, but he fought on Antony’s side. Nonetheless, Octavian straight away insists that they find Vorenus, and gives him food, a horse and the seal of Caesar so that he might pass through the crowds. When Octavian returns to camp with Agrippa, they meet up with their friend Gaius Maecenas, who informs them that the two generals who aided in defeating Antony have died, at which point Octavian claims the victory is his. Although Octavian insists that the victory was not to spite Antony, it appears to be false and he intends to use his newfound power as influence in Rome, much to Cicero’s fears.

The meeting between Octavian and Cicero is congenial, though tense. Cicero adamantly refuses to give Octavian a triumph for his victory, claiming that Antony is still alive and thus a total victory was not achieved. However, at Octavian’s insistence (along with some pressure from Agrippa), Cicero agrees to make Octavian consul provided that he listen to his advice. Octavian apparently agrees but then goes back on his promise when he declares Brutus and Cassius as enemies of the state (much to Cicero’s chagrin). Due to the presence of armed soldiers in the Senate House, no one, not even Cicero, dares to oppose the measure and it is passed unanimously.

Octavian also continues to harbor a certain grudge against Atia for allowing Antony to beat him despite the pleas from Octavia to forgive their mother. Although Octavian is cold and stubborn, he seems to loosen up considerably when Atia personally asks for forgiveness. It remains to be seen whether Octavian truly forgives his mother.

Eventually, Cicero brings forth a dilemma to Octavian. Brutus and Cassius have begun their march back to Rome with an alleged 20 legions (although Agrippa correctly guesses that this is an exaggeration) and will seek to remove Octavian. Octavian is initially quite distressed by the threat as he only has four legions but is quickly provided an answer by his mother. Going out to Cisalpine Gaul, Octavian (with some aid from Atia) creates an alliance with Antony in order to defeat Brutus and Cassius. While Antony proposes a direct attack, Octavian decides to first kill all supporters of Brutus before engaging in battle, Cicero being the most notable on his death list. Although the measure is greeted with shock by Lepidus, Antony enthusiastically adds the names of a couple of his own enemies onto the list and even Atia contributes.

During the decisive Second Battle of Philippi, Octavian endures Antony’s taunts with severe coldness and anxiously watches the battle while Antony impassively munches on a loaf of bread. When the battle reaches a critical turning point, Antony personally leads an attack while Octavian stays behind. Realizing that Antony would receive all the credit for a victory, Octavian sends Agrippa into battle as well. When the battle is finally over, Octavian notes with disgust that the smell of victory is nothing but „smoke, shit and rotting flesh.“

In Death Mask, Atia suggests that the marriage between her and Mark Antony finally occur as a show of unity between Antony and Octavian. The men agree that such an arrangement is necessary as a marriage between their two houses would clearly make a strong political statement. However, to Atia’s surprise it is her daughter Octavia who is betrothed to Antony. Understanding that Octavia’s childbearing age makes her more suitable for the match, Atia goes along with the marriage but is furious nonetheless.

Octavian’s darker side emerges further in the episode A Necessary Fiction. He meets Livia, the young wife of Claudius Nero (and mother of his son, Tiberius), and decides that she will divorce her husband and marry him. He later confides in her that he may beat or lightly whip her during their marriage, but only because it brings him „sexual pleasure“; it is revealed in Deus Impeditio Esuritori Nullus (No God Can Stop a Hungry Man) that these sadomasochistic tendencies are mutual. When Maecenas reveals that Atia and Mark Antony have resumed their affair and that Octavia is involved with Agrippa, a furious Octavian invites them all to dinner. There he commands Antony to leave Rome indefinitely, or be publicly shamed with Octavia’s adultery. He sends Atia and Octavia into seclusion (under armed guard) at Atia’s villa, and solemnly forgives a shamed and remorseful Agrippa.

Antony begins his relationship with Cleopatra in Alexandria. Cleopatra urges Antony to declare war on Rome to combat Octavian’s tyranny. Antony is hesitant, knowing that an attack on Rome would strip him of the people’s devotion, the one thing that Octavian does not have. Instead Antony cuts off all grain shipments from Egypt to Rome. The plan works and greatly angers the starving Roman people who blame Octavian for the grain shortage. A desperate Octavian, facing riots and renewed civil war in Rome, responds by sending his sister Octavia and mother Atia to convince Antony to send grain. When Atia and Octavia arrive in Egypt Antony orders Lucius Vorenus to send them back Rome immediately. When both women strongly object Vorenus says that if they refuse to leave Egyptian soldiers will remove them by force. Antony has by this point embraced Egyptian culture, providing Octavian with a pretext for invasion.

With the assistance of Posca, Octavian obtains Antony’s will and has the details provided to the people of Rome, revealing that Antony had left control of the eastern provinces to his children with Cleopatra. The scandal is an appropriate casus belli, and after defeating Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium, he pursues them to Alexandria. There Antony descends into a drunken stupor and Octavian attempts to bargain with Cleopatra, hoping to display her as spoils of war at his triumph. He is foiled by their dual suicide; he sends Titus Pullo to assassinate Caesarion, but Pullo deceives him and saves the boy. The series ends with Octavian and his family attending his triumph, hailed as Caesar and savior of the Republic, at the dawn of the Empire.

Highly intelligent and well read, Octavian is a young man whose formidable mind marks him out even among the upper classes of Rome. His astute understanding of those around him makes him observant and lethally sharp in guessing the motives and intent of others. He is, however, cold, distant, and cynical; in one of the latter episodes of the series he describes himself as perceived by others as „cold and heartless.“ His insecurities and self-doubt are displayed only occasionally; in front of his sister (for whom he has sexual feelings) and Titus Pullo, to whom he admits his mediocre skills in physical combat, „I dare say I can kill a man, so long as he’s not fighting back.“ He has already demonstrated this upon Pullo’s rescue of him from being kidnapped by bandits hired by Pompey, when he beats to death one of his kidnappers, already heavily wounded. His friendship with Pullo becomes a major plot point in the second season, with Octavian even entrusting to the soldier the assassination of the teenage Caesarion.

He is also well read in philosophy and is implied to be a monotheist and more specifically a deist (in contrast to his polytheistic society)–he does not believe in the Roman gods, but is open to the possibility of some kind of Prime Mover. He has political beliefs favoring rule by the people rather than the elite. Upon Lucius Vorenus asking why should the Republic be changed, Octavian counters by saying „Because the Roman people are suffering, because slaves have taken all the work, because nobles have taken all the land, and because the streets are filled with the homeless and the starving.“ In the second season, his opinions evolve; it becomes obvious that he intends to establish a tyranny, and he sincerely advocates a harsh stance on issues of moral degeneration amongst the Roman elite – particularly his own family, with whom he shares a tense and manipulative relationship, frequently using them for political gain. He also orders, along with Mark Antony, the assassination of nearly a thousand senators and rich citizens, including Cicero and the father of Jocasta, primarily to obtain their wealth and also to eliminate his opponents in the Senate. Atia herself personally admits privately that she is responsible for her son’s cruelty, after years of manipulating Octavian he changed from a good and honest child. Despite this, he seems to be motivated by genuine benevolence for the Roman people and moral outrage at the corruption of Roman society.

He is shown to have sadistic sexual tendencies; he mentions this to his fiance Livia, rather ashamed, that when they are married he will sometimes beat her with his hands or a light whip, citing that it’s not out of anger, but it gives him sexual pleasure. Luckily, not only does Livia tolerate his predilection, but also shares his pleasure in it; the two engage in erotic asphyxiation and particularly violent sex.

The future Augustus was born Gaius Octavius in 63 BC, son of the elder Gaius Octavius, a Senator of obscure provincial origins, and Atia, niece of Julius Caesar. In 44 BC he learned that Caesar had named him in his will as his adopted son and heir, at which point he took the name Gaius Julius Caesar. He would have been expected to add the surname Octavianus to indicate his family of origin, although there is no evidence he himself ever used this name; but from this he is conventionally known as „Octavian“ in English. In fact, the historical Caesar Augustus avoided the use of the name „Octavian“ as it pointed to him having been born a plebeian rather than a Patrician, and it is for this reason that Cicero amused himself by continually addressing him as such.

Little is recorded of his childhood, so his trip to Gaul in „The Stolen Eagle“ is entirely fictional. His appointment to the College of Pontiffs at the age of 15, however, is accurate. Suetonius reports that he was accused by Mark Antony of having a homosexual relationship with Caesar (dramatised in the series as a misunderstanding following Caesar’s epileptic seizure), but dismisses the accusation as political slander.

In 47 BC, on his return from Egypt, Caesar asked the now 16-year-old Octavian to join his staff for his campaign against Cato and Scipio in Africa, but his mother refused to let him go. Even so, Caesar presented him with military honours after his victory at the Battle of Thapsus, and allowed him take part in his Triumph.

The following year he obtained Atia’s permission for Octavian to join him in Spain for his campaign against Pompey’s sons, but Octavian fell ill and was unable to travel. He eventually set out for the field, but was shipwrecked. Washed up on a beach with a handful of soldiers, Octavian managed to make it through enemy territory to Caesar’s camp. After Caesar’s victory in the Battle of Munda, Octavian travelled back to Rome in Caesar’s carriage.

It was after this campaign that Caesar secretly changed his will, naming Octavian as his heir. He officially enrolled the boy as a Patrician, and sent him to Macedonia to study rhetoric under Apollodorus of Pergamon. When Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Octavian was in Apollonia, Illyria, studying and undergoing military training. Rejecting the advice of some army officers to take refuge with the troops in Macedonia, he sailed to Italia. After landing at Lupiae near Brundisium, he learned of the contents of Caesar’s will. In the series, Octavian is in Rome when Caesar is killed, and convinces his mother and Mark Antony not to flee the city; they hear the contents of Caesar’s will soon after.

In ‚Rome‘, Octavian is called Gaius Octavian and becomes known as Gaius Octavian Caesar after Caesar’s death. The real Octavian was known as Gaius Octavius (he only becomes an „Octavianus“ after being adopted and becoming a „Julius“) and then became known as Gaius Julius Caesar (Octavianus/Octavian by his enemies, including Cicero, who continued to address him as Octavian in order to amuse himself and dent Octavian’s ego, and later historians) after posthumously adopted by Caesar.

In Philippi Octavian does not object to Mark Antony’s desire to proscribe and kill Cicero whereas historical sources indicate that Octavian only very reluctantly went along with Antony’s wishes after two days of arguments and objections.

In A Necessary Fiction, Octavian meets and plans to marry his first wife, Livia; historically, Octavian had already been married to and divorced Clodia Pulchra (daughter of Fulvia, wife of Mark Antony before Octavia) by this time. Furthermore, when Octavian met future wife Livia he was married to Scribonia, whom he divorced the same day she gave birth to his only child, Julia the Elder. Rome ignores these former relationships, but does acknowledge the existence of Livia’s child, Tiberius, by her first husband Tiberius Claudius Nero. Historically, Livia was pregnant with her second child Nero Claudius Drusus when she met Octavian, whom she married mere days after giving birth to her son.

The personality of Octavian as presented in the show is different from that presented in the sources. Rome portrays Octavian as an emotionless and openly calculating member of the elite, while Suetonius presents him as more of a home-spun populist and a lover of other men’s wives (including the wife of Maecenas, which led to their falling out). It is possible that both these portrayals are true to some extent, reflecting different facets of his persona. The eminent classicist Ronald Syme, whose work The Roman Revolution has been highly influential in the English-speaking world, famously called Octavian a ‚chill terrorist‘. But the position he put himself in, as Augustus, rebuilding Rome from deep division and near-catastrophe to peace and stability, necessitated the subtle and complex portrayal of a wide range of facets of personality, real and simulated. In the words of Julius Caesar’s biographer, Christian Meier, Octavian „had to be an actor, and he knew this“. Suetonius reports that on his deathbed, Augustus summoned his friends and asked them, „Did you like the performance?“, referring to the play-acting and regal authority that he had put on as emperor. They assured him that they had and he replied, „Since I’ve played my part well, all clap your hands, and from the stage dismiss me with applause.“

Forte Geremia

[senza fonte]

Il forte Geremia è una fortezza militare dell’Appennino Ligure occidentale, che sorge (ad un’altitudine di 806 m s.l.m.) sull’anticima orientale del Bric Geremia, un rilievo del crinale appenninico principale. Si trova a brevissima distanza dalla costa ligure (7 km in linea d’aria) e nel punto in cui convergono le valle del Cerusa, quella del Leiro e la valle Stura.

Amministrativamente l’area ricade nel territorio comunale di Masone (GE), trovandosi a ridosso del confine con i comuni di Genova e di Mele, cui appartengono rispettivamente il versante meridionale ed orientale del Bric Geremia, l’altura sulla quale fu edificato il complesso fortificato.

Il forte Geremia non è visibile dalla vicina strada provinciale 456 del passo del Turchino, poiché ben mimetizzato da un terrapieno inerbito, che si confonde con l’area sommitale del rilievo montuoso, dalle finestre del forte e dalla sommità del terrapieno stesso si può usufruire di una spettacolare panoramica sulla costa ligure tra Voltri e Crevari e sul versante orientale del massiccio montuoso del Beigua; la facciata principale del forte, esposta a Ovest-Nord-Ovest risulta invece ben distinguibile dal Bric del Dente, dal vicino monte Giallo e dalla sottostante Sella del Barnè, nonché da un ampio tratto della strada provinciale del Faiallo, che transita in prossimità del forte Geremia.

Il forte fu costruito dal genio militare del Regno d’Italia, verso la fine del XIX secolo, sull’ampia anticima orientale del Bric Geremia (819 m) dal quale prende il nome, formava un complesso di fortificazioni che, assieme alla vicina Batteria Aresci (ora semidistrutta), aveva lo scopo di controllare il passo del Turchino e le valli adiacenti. La decisione della sua edificazione fu voluta per un maggior controllo del valico appenninico che, a partire dalla fine del XIX secolo, assunse grande importanza storica e commerciale per le vallate del Ponente genovese e per la stessa Genova.

Le due costruzioni difensive, circondate da un notevole fossato, furono dotate di un telegrafo e di una strada militare permettendo così un rapido collegamento viario e di comunicazione. Presidiata fino alla prima guerra mondiale la Batteria Aresci fu interessata il 28 gennaio del 1914 da un’esplosione della polveriera che, oltre a causare la morte di alcuni soldati, danneggiò alcune parti della batteria. Successivamente abbandonata, principalmente per mancanza di utilizzo bellico, della batteria rimangono ancora oggi visibili il corpo di guardia e l’antistante piazzale dove, a fianco, sorgevano le postazioni di fuoco e la caserma.

Il forte Geremia si presenta invece come una caserma in pietra su due piani e in discrete condizioni strutturali nonostante l’abbandono dopo la seconda guerra mondiale. Secondo studi approfonditi la caserma poteva contenere più di cento unità di truppa e l’armamento era composto da due cannoni da 9 BR/Ret e da sei cannoni da 12 BR/Ret controllando così il vallone del Turchino e le alture dello Stura e Vezzulla. La polveriera, isolata da un’intercapedine ad anello, fu ricavata all’interno del monte Geremia e ancora oggi una galleria-corridoio permette di raggiungerla dalla caserma. In un’estremità della caserma è presente una caponiera avente lo scopo di controllo dell’ingresso, del piazzale antistante e soprattutto della strada di accesso al forte.

Oggi il forte Geremia è di proprietà del comune di Masone che, grazie ad un recente lavoro di restauro e conservazione (terminati nel 2012), lo ha trasformato in un centro visite e di sosta attrezzata del Parco naturale regionale del Beigua.

Altri progetti

a nord: Forte Puin · Forte Fratello Maggiore · Forte Fratello Minore · Forte Diamante

Julian Grobelny

Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (, comment ajouter mes sources ?).

Julian Grobelny, né en 1893 à Brzeziny et mort en 1946, est un socialiste polonais, résistant et président de la commission d’aide aux Juifs polonais.

Julian Grobelny est membre du PPS (Parti socialiste polonais). Après la Première Guerre mondiale, il prend part aux trois soulèvements pro-polonais en Silésie orientale.

C’est un résistant, membre de 1939 à 1945 de l’Armia Krajowa (Armée de l’Intérieur).

Premier président de la Żegota (Commission d’aide aux Juifs polonais). Pour cette activité durant l’occupation allemande, il a été honoré du titre de Juste parmi les nations.

George Shearing

George Shearing, OBE (Londres, 13 de agosto de 1919 – 14 de febrero de 2011), fue un pianista y compositor inglés de jazz. Su ámbito estilístico fue el de los géneros anteriores al hard bop: swing, bop y cool; ha hecho también importantes aproximaciones al jazz latino. Dentro de su atención constante al jazz desde una perspectiva más bien tradicional, Shearing lideró en los años cincuenta, y hasta bien entrados los sesenta, uno de los grupos de jazz más populares: un original quinteto formado por piano, vibráfono, guitarra eléctrica, bajo y batería.

Shearing fue influido en su estilo (autodenominado „locked hands“, basado en los acordes paralelos) por el trabajo del pianista Milt Buckner con la banda del vibrafonista Lionel Hampton, por la sección de saxo de la orquesta de Glenn Miller y por el King Cole Trio. Son perceptibles también las influencias de los grandes pianistas de boogie-woogie y de clásicos como Fats Waller, Earl Hines, Teddy Wilson, Erroll Garner, Art Tatum y Bud Powell. Por supuesto, ha sido a su vez también muy admirado y seguido.

En los años 50´s creó el famoso estilo de los Bloques de Shearing, consistente en tocar la melodía en bloques armónicos. La nota de la melodía va acompañada por las 3 restantes notas del acorde en la mano derecha, y la mano izquierda dobla la melodía.

Shearing contribuyó también como pionero de los pequeños combos de jazz afro-cubano en los años cincuenta. En este sentido, Cal Tjader se inició en el jazz latino mientras tocaba con Shearing, quien también contó entre sus músicos con congueros como Mongo Santamaría, Willie Bobo y Armando Peraza.

Como compositor, Shearing es conocido sobre todo por los estándares „Lullaby of Birdland,“, „Conception“ y „Consternation“.

George Shearing ha sido también uno de los más aclamados acompañantes del cantante Mel Tormé.

Shearing, que nació ciego, empezó a tocar el piano a los tres años de edad, recibiendo algunas lecciones en la Linden Lodge School para ciegos de Londres durante su adolescencia, siendo influido ya por jazzistas como Teddy Wilson y Fats Waller. A finales de los años treinta, comenzó a tocar profesionalmente con la Ambrose dance band e hizo su primera grabación en 1937 bajo la supervisión de un joven Leonard Feather. Se convirtió en una estrella en Gran Bretaña, tocando para la BBC y para los grupos del autoexiliado Stéphane Grappelli a comienzos de los años cuarenta. Ganó siete encuestas consecutivas de la revista Melody Maker.

En 1947, incitado por Feather, emigró a Nueva York. Una vez allí, el pianista absorbió el bebop y reemplazó a Erroll Garner en el trío de Oscar Pettiford y lideró un cuarteto junto con Buddy DeFranco. En 1949, formó el primero y el más famoso de sus quintetos, en el que tocaban Marjorie Hyams en el vibráfono, Chuck Wayne en la guitarra, John Levy en el bajo y Denzil Best en la batería. Grabaron primero para Discovery, luego para Savoy, y finalmente obtuvieron importantes contratos con MGM (1950-55) y Capitol (1955-69), haciendo para esta los famosos discos con Nancy Wilson, Peggy Lee y Nat Cole. Grabó también en 1961 con Jazzland con los Montgomery Brothers (entre los que estaba Wes Montgomery) y empezó a dar conciertos con orquestas sinfónicas.

Tras abandonar Capitol, Shearing siguió tocando con varios quintetos más, pero su música se hizo algo previsible y en 1978 abandonó el último de ellos. A principios de los setenta, había creado su propia compañía, Sheba, que duró poco tiempo, y a continuación hizo algunas grabaciones en trío para MPS.

A lo largo de los setenta, su popularidad había disminuido considerablemente; sin embargo, cuando en 1979 firma con Concord recupera parte de su crédito. Graba unos discos muy elogiados con el cantante Mel Tormé, que a su vez incrementaron la popularidad de este, y con otros artistas como la vocalista Ernestine Anderson, el guitarrista Jim Hall, Marian McPartland, Hank Jones y con el intérprete de cuerno francés Barry Tuckwell. Grabó también varios discos en solitario, expresando todas sus influencias.

Tras firmar con Telarc en 1992, siguió grabando, continuando una de las carreras más largas y prolíficas de la historia del jazz.

Falleció el 14 de febrero de 2011 debido a una insuficiencia cardiaca en la ciudad de Nueva York.

Pitch circularity

Pitch circularity is a fixed series of tones that appear to ascend or descend endlessly in pitch.

Pitch is often defined as extending along a one-dimensional continuum from high to low, as can be experienced by sweeping one’s hand up or down a piano keyboard. This continuum is known as pitch height. However pitch also varies in a circular fashion, known as pitch class: as one plays up a keyboard in semitone steps, C, C, D, D, E, F, F, G, G, A, A and B sound in succession, followed by C again, but one octave higher. Because the octave is the most consonant interval after the unison, tones that stand in octave relation, and are so of the same pitch class, have a certain perceptual equivalence—all Cs sound more alike to other Cs than to any other pitch class, as do all Ds, and so on; this creates the auditory equivalent of a Barber’s pole.

Researchers have demonstrated that by creating banks of tones whose note names are clearly defined perceptually but whose perceived heights are ambiguous, one can create scales that appear to ascend or descend endlessly in pitch. Roger Shepard achieved this ambiguity of height by creating banks of complex tones, with each tone composed only of components that stood in octave relationship. In other words, the components of the complex tone C consisted only of Cs, but in different octaves, and the components of the complex tone F consisted only of Fs, but in different octaves. When such complex tones are played in semitone steps the listener perceives a scale that appears to ascend endlessly in pitch. Jean-Claude Risset achieved the same effect using gliding tones instead, so that a single tone appeared to glide up or down endlessly in pitch. Circularity effects based on this principle have been produced in orchestral music and electronic music, by having multiple instruments playing simultaneously in different octaves.

Normann et al. showed that pitch circularity can be created using a bank of single tones; here the relative amplitudes of the odd and even harmonics of each tone are manipulated so as to create ambiguities of height. A different algorithm that creates ambiguities of pitch height by manipulating the relative amplitudes of the odd and even harmonics, was developed by Diana Deutsch and colleagues. Using this algorithm, gliding tones that appear to ascend or descend endlessly are also produced. This development has led to the intriguing possibility that, using this new algorithm, one might transform banks of natural instrument samples so as to produce tones that sound like those of natural instruments but still have the property of circularity. This development opens up new avenues for music composition and performance.

British Home Championship 1905/06

Die British Home Championship 1905/06 war die 23. Auflage des im Round-Robin-System ausgetragenen Fußballwettbewerbs zwischen den vier britischen Nationalmannschaften von England, Irland (ab 1950/51 Nordirland), Schottland und Wales.

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Afro Samurai

Afro Samurai (アフロサムライ Afuro Samurai?) è un manga scritto e illustrato da Takashi Okazaki e pubblicato in Giappone nella rivista di dōjinshi Nou Nou Hau. Dal manga, è stata creata una miniserie anime di 5 episodi, ideata da Fuminori Kizaki e prodotta dallo studio d’animazione Gonzo.

In un Giappone futuristico ma ancora feudale, si dice che colui che brandirà la fascia per capelli Numero 1 sarà il più fiero combattente al mondo e possiederà poteri al pari di quelli di un dio. L’unico modo per ottenere la fascia Numero 1 è sfidare e sconfiggere l’attuale possessore in combattimento. Tuttavia, solo colui che possiede la fascia Numero 2 può sfidare il possessore della Numero 1, mentre chiunque può sfidare il possessore della Numero 2 per avere la fascia. Chi indossa la fascia Numero 2 sarà tenuto ad affrontare un’infinita serie di combattimenti. Tra le montagne, Justice, il possessore della fascia Numero 2 combatte contro il padre di Afro Samurai, Rokutaro, in quanto possessore della Numero 1, e lo uccide reclamando la fascia Numero 1. Testimone della lotta, Afro giura vendetta contro Justice, il quale gli dice di venirlo a cercare quando si riterrà „pronto per affrontare un dio“. Afro intraprende quindi un lungo e pericoloso viaggio, con in mano soltanto la spada del padre e la Fascia N°2, che perderà poco dopo in un’imboscata. Verrà ritrovato in fin di vita da un Maestro di Spada, il quale lo accoglierà ed alleverà nel suo Dojo.

Ormai adolescente, Afro scopre che il suo Maestro è l’attuale proprietario della Fascia N°2, motivo per cui lo sfiderà, causando la sua morte e quella di tutti i suoi compagni, eccezion fatta per Jino. Afro continua quindi il suo cammino verso il Monte Shumi, accompagnato dal ninja Bu, definibile come „il riflesso dell’umanità di Afro“. Bu è infatti una sorta di „amico immaginario“ che esprime i pensieri e le emozioni di Afro, dato il suo perenne silenzio. I pretendenti alla leggendaria Fascia N°2 saranno innumerevoli, ma Afro riuscirà a giungere in cima al Monte Shumi dove incontra Jino, desideroso di vendicare il suo Maestro e i suoi fratelli. Anch’egli viene sconfitto in battaglia, ma durante lo scontro Afro perde Bu.

L’ultima tappa del viaggio del protagonista è lo scontro con Justice. Afro riesce a vendicarsi, dilaniando il suo nemico con profondi fendenti di spada ed entrando in possesso della Fascia N°1. La storia termina con una battaglia, che vede come sfidanti ancora una volta Afro e Jino, il quale è ritornato in vita ed è entrato in possesso della Fascia N°2.

L’anime è stato prodotto dallo studio giapponese Gonzo in collaborazione con Samuel L. Jackson e l’autore Takashi Okazaki, e si compone di cinque episodi. La colonna sonora è stata affidata a RZA del Wu-Tang Clan.

Il 27 gennaio 2009 è stato pubblicato il videogioco 3D basato sugli omonimi manga e anime, sviluppato da Namco Bandai per console PlayStation 3 e Xbox 360.

Lorna (film)

Lorna è un film del 1964, diretto da Russ Meyer.

È il primo film del cosiddetto „periodo del bianco e nero gotico“, che Meyer attraversò tra il 1964 e il 1966, dirigendo una serie di film ispirati ai racconti di Erskine Caldwell e di John Steinbeck, ambientati nel profondo Sud statunitense.

Lorna è un dramma rurale, girato da Meyer senza le esagerazioni visive e violente che saranno presenti nei suoi successivi film (a partire da Vixen!).

Il film fu influenzato dal neorealismo italiano, e soprattutto da Riso amaro, di Giuseppe De Santis. «C’era una scena che mi colpì molto, cioè quella in cui si vede Silvana Mangano con i pantaloncini succinti in un campo di riso. Ho pensato di raccontare una storia simile, arricchendola con una morale di stampo biblico» dichiarò il regista, che in un’altra intervista aggiunse: «L’unica ragione per cui ho girato in bianco e nero è che mancavano i soldi per girare a colori».

Un predicatore è immobile in mezzo a una strada e, rivolgendosi allo spettatore, rievoca le vicende di Sodoma e Gomorra.

Luther e Jonah, due squallidi individui, seguono una ragazza e la violentano nella sua casa.

Lorna è una ragazza sessualmente insoddisfatta, sposata con Jim, uomo gentile che tratta Lorna con un’adorazione fredda e incolore. I due abitano in una casa che si trova in un misero posto di provincia. Rimasta sola in casa, mentre il marito è al lavoro (fa l’operaio, e i suoi compagni di lavoro sono Luther e Jonah), Lorna sogna di diventare una ballerina e di scatenarsi in balli sfrenati.

Un uomo evade dal carcere, e violenta Lorna sulla riva di un fiume. Tornata al paese, la donna riconosce tra la folla il violentatore ma fa finta di nulla, e anzi lo ospita in casa sua. La donna, finalmente appagata sessualmente, inizia con l’uomo una relazione.

Sul posto di lavoro Luther e Jonah, discutendo con Jim, gli insinuano il dubbio che Lorna lo tradisca, rimanendo sempre sola in casa. L’uomo però non crede ai due.

Nel finale Luther confessa a Lorna di essersi comportato in modo sleale con Jim, per invidia. Lorna muore insieme al suo amante, dopo che la Morte è apparsa su una collina.

Il budget del film fu di 60.000 dollari. Il film fu girato con una troupe ristretta, sotto il completo controllo di Meyer, che oltre alla regia si occupò anche della fotografia, del montaggio, della produzione e della distribuzione. Negli anni successivi il regista manterrà questo completo controllo in quasi tutte le sue opere.

Il film fu girato in California, in soli 10 giorni, nel settembre 1963.

Lorna è interpretata da Lorna Maitland, all’epoca ventenne. Fu una delle 132 donne che si presentarono al provino, dopo aver letto un annuncio sul Daily Variety.

La Maitland era incinta di tre mesi. Meyer la scelse durante il provino, rimanendo colpito dai suoi seni prosperosi. «Quando ho visto che non rispondevano alla forza di gravità e rimanevano su, immediatamente ho pensato: „Incassi!“» disse il regista.

Il predicatore presente nel prologo del film è James Griffith, che scrisse il film in quattro giorni.

Lorna ebbe un discreto successo di pubblico, e anche di critica. Un critico affibbiò al regista il soprannome di „Truffaut del Tennessee“, cosa che lo divertiva molto.

Lorna rappresentò una novità assoluta per Meyer, che introdusse nel film elementi che ricorreranno nella sua successiva filmografia:

Altri progetti

Fritz Giese

Wilhelm Oskar Fritz Giese (* 21. Mai 1890 in Charlottenburg; † 12. Juli 1935 in Stuttgart (nach anderen Angaben Berlin)) war ein deutscher Psychologe, der sich insbesondere mit der Psychotechnik befasste. Daneben hat er als einer der ersten die Erkenntnisse der Tiefenpsychologie methodisch in die psychologische Diagnostik eingebaut und sich mit Fragen der Literatur, Sportmedizin und Musiktherapie beschäftigt.

Giese, Sohn eines technischen Kaufmanns, studierte nach dem Abitur Germanistik und Philosophie, später Psychologie, Medizin und Physik an der Universität Leipzig und promovierte dort 1914 bei Professor Wilhelm Wundt mit einer Dissertation zum Thema Untersuchungen über die Zöllnersche Täuschung.

In der Folgezeit war er während des Ersten Weltkrieges als Psychologe auf einer Station für Hirnverletzte in der Landesheilanstalt Nietleben bei Halle tätig, wo er das erste deutsche Provinzialinstitut für praktische Psychologie begründete.

Darüber hinaus war er Autor von Fachbüchern wie Psychologische Beiträge (1916), Jugendhandbuch der Menschenkunde (1916), Über den Geschlechtsunterschied (1917), Weibliche Körperbildung und Bewegungskunst nach dem System Mensendieck (1920), Aufgaben und Wesen der Psychotechnik (1920), Psychologie und Berufsberatung (1920), Psychotechnik und Taylorsystem (1920). Außerdem äußerte er sich in Denkschriften wie Die Idee einer Frauendienstpflicht (1916) zu den Möglichkeiten einer Dienstpflicht für Frauen.

1921 beauftragte ihn die juristische und staatswissenschaftliche Fakultät der Friedrichs-Universität Halle mit der Abhaltung von Vorlesungen und Übungen über Wirtschaftspsychologie. Zugleich folgten in den nächsten Jahren Veröffentlichungen wie Psychotechnische Eignungsprüfungen an Erwachsenen (1921), Berufspsychologie und Arbeitsschule (1921) und Psychologisches Wörterbuch (1921), mit dem er den Grundstein für Dorschs Psychologisches Wörterbuch legte, Psychologie und Psychotechnik (1922).

1923 folgte Giese einem Ruf als Privatdozent für Psychologie und Pädagogik an die TH Stuttgart, wo er ein Psychotechnisches Laboratorium aufbaute. Zugleich erschienen Fachbücher wie Berufspsychologische Beobachtungen im Reichstelegraphendienst (Telephonie und Siemensbetrieb) (1923), Psychotechnisches Praktikum (1923), Die Lehre von den Gedankenwellen (1924), Das ausserpersönliche Unbewusste (1924), Körperseele (1924), Psychoanalytische Psychotechnik (1924), Psychologische Massenprüfungen für Zwecke der Berufsberatung (1924, Mitautorin seine Gattin Emmy Lang), Theorie der Psychotechnik (1925), Geist im Sport (1925), Girlkultur (1925), Handbuch psychotechnischer Eignungsprüfungen (1925), Die Frau als Atmosphärenwert (1926), Zeitgeist und Berufserziehung (1927), Methoden der Wirtschaftspsychologie (1927), Erlebnisformen des Alterns (1928), Die öffentliche Persönlichkeit (1928), Psychotechnik in der Erziehung (1928), Das freie literarische Schaffen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen (1928), Arbeits- und Berufspsychologie (1928), Psychologie der Arbeitshand (1928) und Wirtschaft und Psychotechnik (1929).

1929 wurde er Professor für Psychologie an der TH Stuttgart. Neben seiner Lehrtätigkeit befasste er sich mit Forschungen zur Kulturpathologie, Vermassung und Verkehrspsychologie. Nachdem er 1931 den Ruf auf eine Professur an der Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ablehnte, folgten 1932 Gastprofessuren an der Universität Complutense Madrid und der Universität Barcelona.

Des Weiteren setzte Giese, der förderndes Mitglied der Hitlerjugend war, seine umfangreiche fachliterarische Tätigkeit fort und veröffentlichte nach einer deutschen Ausgabe von John B. Watsons Behaviorismus unter dem Titel Der Behaviorismus (1930) weitere Fachbücher wie Psychologische Beobachtungstechnik bei Arbeitsproben (1931), Philosophie der Arbeit (1932), Psychologie als Lehrfach und Forschungsgebiet auf der Technischen Hochschule (1933) und Nietzsche, die Erfüllung (1934).

1939 erschien schließlich posthum das von ihm überarbeitete und von Theodor Elsenhans begründete Lehrbuch der Psychologie.